To adapt to or move in accordance with local changing temperature ranges plays an important role in global diversity patterns, metabolic strategies (such as ectothermy) and the distribution of species (8, 9). Insects, being ectothermic, are vulnerable to environmental temperature and its fluctuation as their physiological processes are temperature sensitive (10, 11). One of the adaptations to better withstand local temperature fluctuations is rapid hardening, a type of phenotypic plasticity, which can either be rapid heat hardening at high temperatures or rapid cold hardening at low temperatures.
Rapid hardening occurs when an organism is exposed to a stressful non-lethal temperature for a short period of time, resulting in an increase in thermal tolerance, which may improve Spain phone number list the ability of an individual to survive exposure to extreme temperatures that would otherwise be lethal (12). Rapid heat and cold hardening has been shown to improve the survival of a few insect species when exposed to extreme temperatures, both in a laboratory setting as well as in the field (14–18). Alongside the above-mentioned role in species distribution, this improvement in survival may also contribute to the invasiveness of pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit.
Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) raised on a protein rich larval diet survived exposure to high temperatures better than those raised on a carbohydrate rich larval diet. In contrast, flies raised on the carbohydrate rich diet survived exposure to low temperatures better than their protein fed counterparts (19). Mitchell et al. (22) withheld protein as a food source to adult C. capitata and found a positive association between nutrient restriction and heat tolerance. The study by Andersen et al. (19) also showed that may influence the interaction between nutrition and thermal tolerance, but it should be noted that had no significant effect on thermal tolerance in some Ceratitis species (13). Poor nutrition at the larval stage of a holometabolous insect can be compensated for by selective feeding on a nutrient rich diet at the adult stage.